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We aimed to review the epidemiologic literature examining lifestyle and metabolic risk factors, and blood-based biomarkers including multi-omics (genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and to discuss how these predictive markers can inform early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A search of the PubMed database was conducted in June 2018 to review epidemiologic studies of (i) lifestyle and metabolic risk factors for PDAC, genome-wide association studies, and risk prediction models incorporating these factors and (ii) blood-based biomarkers for PDAC (conventional diagnostic markers, metabolomics, and proteomics). Prospective cohort studies have reported at least 20 possible risk factors for PDAC, including smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, adiposity, diabetes, and pancreatitis, but the relative risks and population attributable fractions of individual risk factors are small (mostly

Original publication




Journal article


J Gastroenterol Hepatol

Publication Date





330 - 345


biomarkers, early diagnosis, metabolomics, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, proteomics, risk factors, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal, Early Detection of Cancer, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genomics, Humans, Life Style, Male, Metabolic Diseases, Metabolomics, Middle Aged, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Predictive Value of Tests, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors