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AIMS: Although rheumatic diseases constitute a leading cause of disability, the environmental risk factors for these diseases are not clarified. In the present study, we aim to systematically appraise the epidemiological credibility of the environmental risk factors for rheumatic diseases. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed to capture meta-analyses of observational studies on environmental risk factors for the most prevalent rheumatic diseases. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size estimate, the 95% confidence and prediction intervals, and the I2 metric. We further examined the presence of small-study effects and excess significance bias. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 30 eligible papers describing 42 associations. Thirty-three associations were statistically significant at P 

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Rheum Dis

Publication Date





1514 - 1524


Sjögren syndrome, gout, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, risk factors, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, Alcohol Drinking, Body Mass Index, Environment, Humans, Job Description, Knee Injuries, Life Style, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Obesity, Occupations, Rheumatic Diseases, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Smoking