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CONTEXT: In recent decades, there has been a rapid and substantial increase in tobacco consumption in China, particularly by men, but little is known from local epidemiologic studies about the pattern of smoking-related deaths. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current health effects of cigarette smoking in Shanghai, China. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of mortality in relation to cigarette smoking. SETTING: Eleven factories in urban Shanghai. SUBJECTS: A total of 9351 adults (6494 men and 2857 women) aged 35 to 64 years at baseline survey during the 1970s. OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 16 years, 881 men and 207 women died. Among men, 61% had described themselves as current cigarette smokers at baseline, and their overall mortality was significantly greater than that of nonsmokers (relative risk [RR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.7; P

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1500 - 1504


Adult, Aged, Cause of Death, China, Female, Humans, Lung Diseases, Obstructive, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Neoplasms, Prevalence, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Smoking, Vascular Diseases