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BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification is a pathological process characterized by abnormal formation of bone in nonskeletal tissue. Radiotherapy for heterotopic ossification of the elbow is questionable because of possible adverse effects. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, National Guideline Clearinghouse, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe,, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to April 2012. All published articles assessing interventions including radiotherapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification in the elbow of adult patients were considered. Information was recorded by the first two authors, and disagreements in interpretation were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: In total, 27 studies using radiotherapy for elbow heterotopic ossification were identified (1 randomized clinical trial, 1 case-control study, and 25 case reports and case series) in the literature. Most of them used a single dose of 7.0 Gy. The randomized clinical trial was stopped early because of severe adverse effects (pseudarthrosis) caused by radiation. The case-control study showed that radiotherapy did not effectively prevent recurrence of heterotopic ossification. The case reports and case series mentioned only sparse adverse events. CONCLUSION: The use of radiation therapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification of the elbow is supported by weak evidence.

Original publication




Journal article


J Shoulder Elbow Surg

Publication Date





1580 - 1588


Radiotherapy, Review Article, elbow, heterotopic ossification, prevention, systematic review, Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Elbow, Humans, Middle Aged, Ossification, Heterotopic, Pseudarthrosis, Radiotherapy, Recurrence