Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Limited convincing evidence is available of the relationship between habitual snoring and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). RESEARCH QUESTION: Is habitual snoring associated with total CVD and CVD subtypes in different age groups of Chinese adults? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank study enrolled more than 0.5 million adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 regions in China. Snoring status and other baseline characteristics were collected from 2004 to 2008, using an interviewer-administered laptop-based questionnaire. The current analysis included 489,583 participants without stroke or coronary heart disease at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for habitual snoring vs nonhabitual snoring. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 130,935 participants developed CVDs. Associations between habitual snoring and CVDs varied with age. Among participants aged younger than 50 years at baseline, habitual snoring was associated with an increased risk of total CVD (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14) after adjustment for known CVD risk factors, including systolic BP. The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were 1.18 (1.12-1.24), 1.12 (1.05-1.19), and 1.05 (0.92-1.19), respectively. However, such associations in adults aged 50 to 64 years were much weaker, and no statistically significant association was observed among individuals aged ≥65 years. Age-specific risk estimates were generally similar across sex and obesity subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Habitual snoring was associated with increased risks of total CVD, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese, and these associations were mainly limited to those aged <50 years. Clinicians in China are encouraged to identify snoring, particularly in younger adults.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1053 - 1063


age groups, cardiovascular diseases, cohort study, snoring status